A Brief History of Zoning and Highway Construction in America

As a follow-up to yesterday’s post, I am re-blogging a piece by Strong Towns member, Vince Graham, who writes from Charleston, South Carolina. Vince outlines the one-two punch zoning and road building delivered to the U.S. over the last 100-years.

Mr. Graham says, “Our problems are caused by what some would have us believe are cures – segregating land uses and connecting them with wide roads. These “cures” result in maximized congestion. The anti-social policies that fed this predicament were unwittingly launched by starry-eyed politicians and business leaders at a time when the U.S. was the world’s biggest creditor. Today, we are the world’s biggest debtor. This is no coincidence.”

You can read the entire piece here.

I add a few facts about roads, and cars, and the environment to highlight the broader environmental destruction that continues today, but the Millennial Generation brings hope:

6 things to know about cars:

  • The EPA estimates that the vehicles we drive are the source of 27% of all Carbon Dioxide emitted into the air in the U.S.
  • Cars have caused nearly 2% of the total surfaces area of the continental U.S. to be paved over for roads and parking lots.
  • Millennials are the first generations to see them as uncool, and unnecessary to daily living.
  • There are approximately 254 million cars in the U.S. and over 800 million paved parking spaces waiting for them to arrive – a ratio greater than 3 to 1.
  • The average car on a U.S. road is 11.4 years old, and is, therefore, polluting the air far more than it was originally designed to.
  • Cars can be driven on over 6 million lane-miles of rural roads, and nearly 3 million lane-miles of urban roads.

6 things to know about bicycles:

  • They emit no Carbon Dioxide.
  • Dedicated pathways and parking areas for bikes are unusual in the U.S., although gaining preference in urban areas where density, and a predictable and connected street grids make their use more practical.
  • Millennials are the first generations to see “utility cycling” as cool, and an intelligent component of daily living.
  • The U.S. Bicycle Market is estimated at 6.1 billion dollars. However, 99% of the bikes sold in the U.S. are imported from China or Taiwan.
  • Health surveys in the U.S. have shown that people that live in bikable communities tend to be slimmer, healthier and friendlier.
  • The National Household Travel Survey showed that the number of trips made by bicycle in the U.S. more than doubled from 1.7 billion in 2001 to 4 billion in 2009.

Timothy Hullihan is an architect and a board member of Sustainable Palm Beach County

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There are Proven Alternatives to Expanding Roads

By: Timothy Hullihan

The City of Palm Beach Gardens recently expressed enthusiastic support a new 45-million dollar interchange at I-95 and Central Boulevard as a “traffic reliever.” Some residents have voiced concern for the impact on their existing neighborhoods nearby, but they appear, unfortunately, to be in the minority even though their concerns are well founded in research and project implementation.

Ironically, The City of Palm Beach Gardens once hosted a lecture by a legendary traffic engineer named Walter Kulash, who was among the first to abandon, and counter with research, the straight-line logic of people = cars = traffic lanes preferred by the road building industry (the “dark side” as he humorously referred to them). The year was 2001, and Florida Atlantic University, and Palm Beach County’s Metropolitan Planning Organization joined forces to create a one-day, professionally facilitated, workshop on regional planning, and Walter was the keynote speaker.

Walter, an entertaining speaker, humorously presented research that showed how “induced demand” is not considered in the simple calculus used to justify road projects. Building new roads, widening existing ones, and adding interchanges actually increase traffic instead of reducing it. People are smarter than the simple straight-line predictive analysis the road building industry prefers. They change their habits to use newly improved roads more frequently, and less efficiently.

Within a congested roadway system, people become more efficient with the planning and combining of errands. They time car trips to avoid peak congestion. They make plans to stay within walking distance of their homes. The straight-line traffic models ignore human potential, and, as Walter showed us, are consistently a source of surprise when newly improved roadways are just as congested as the old ones in a very short time. The new, wider roads induce demand, and soon the projections for relief from congestion are rendered invalid by the realities of human behavior.

The flip-side of induced demand also taps our enormous potential for adaptation, and has proven to produce one of the most positive aspects of wise regional planning practices that shift us away from cars-only roadway thinking, that was dominant during the second half of the 20th Century. The concept of removing freeways and narrowing roads has been implemented across the country since the Embarcadero Freeway in San Francisco was damaged by the Loma Prieta Earthquake, in 1989. Instead of repairing the elevated freeway, the city chose to tear it down completely and replace it with a street level boulevard. By embracing less efficient roadways, and the numerous positive human responses to them, San Francisco’s waterfront evolved. Neighborhoods reconnected, and became eminently more pedestrian-friendly, thus reducing the need for car-trips over time, and the gloom and doom projections of gridlock never happened. Most significant, property values along the new boulevard tripled in a few short years.

Similar projects in Portland, New York, and Milwaukee followed San Francisco’s lead over the next decade, and, like San Francisco, those cities were not beset by traffic congestion, and more livable pedestrian oriented neighborhoods bloomed once the poisonous cloud of a car-dominated transportation system was removed.

Last month (June 2016), the USDOT got on board, and conducted 3 weeklong charrettes in cities across the country, like Spokane, Washington, to design replacement plans for roads and freeways that have divided neighborhoods for decades. The response was powerful, and the potential to, one day, fully reverse our destructive acceptance of a car-centered world reached new heights.

In an article Mr. Kulash wrote for the City of Nashville as part of a study there, he noted that, “By far, the most interesting response to [traffic] congestion is change in the pattern of origins and destinations. The choice of home location is one of the most volatile in this respect.” Wider roads, and the induced demand that comes with them, also encourage households to relocate to new suburban developments and accept longer commutes. Similar to the adjustments humans make to avoid congestion, inefficient roadways make us more likely to stay put, and continue reinvesting in older urban neighborhoods, and continue enhancing their walkability. Since humans adapt their routines to avoid congestion, and reinvestment in older neighborhoods is essential to their sustainable future, Kulash asks, “Who then is victimized by road congestion that causes residents to stay in place?” In fact, older neighborhoods are often the unintended victims of roadway projects because they are more easily abandoned for the newly accessible suburb.

Mr. Kulash is known for many one-liners, but possibly best known for saying, “Widening roads to solve traffic congestion is like loosening your belt to cure obesity.” If we build smart communities that capture traffic, and support existing urban neighborhoods with alternatives to car transportation, belt loosening is not necessary. If we rethink poor planning of the past, and inject walking, biking, and transit systems, belt tightening might even be possible.

Perpetuating the antiquated straight-line logic of people = cars = traffic lanes, perpetuates one of the most destructive forces against community building, and environmental sustainability – THE CAR.

Better planning, thinking, and development are happening throughout the United States, and around the world. Why can’t intelligent regional planning happen at Central Boulevard and I-95?

Timothy Hullihan is an architect and a board member of Sustainable Palm Beach County

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Love Street is Not the “Place Maker” it Claims To Be

By: Timothy Hullihan

The problem with the Love Street / Jupiter Inlet Village project is that nobody will live there. Although it has been scaled back in size, it remains just another drive-to destination.  Rather than creating a charming village, as its name implies, it proposes a place that will be entirely placeless each night after the last visitor drives away.

The planners, architects and developer of the project say the project is “all about real place making.”   Fortunately, we have a large amount of accepted research and knowledgeable writing on the subject of place making dating back over 40-years, and it can be applied in advance to gauge the quality of the place making that is most likely to happen there.

First, 2 things need to be clear about place making – 1) It is a human phenomenon that is, therefore, very personal, varying, and not measurable; 2) “Real” place making happens anywhere, and anytime there are humans present. The degree to which the architecture and urban planning of a new development affects the quality, type, or level of place making that can happen there is, however, what needs to be understood.  Whether the place making is real or not is a non-issue.  It is always real, just varying in quality.

Walkable communities with walkable destinations offer the highest potential for quality place making. This is well established, and our collective appreciation for the physical and mental health benefits of walkable communities is increasing every day.  But there is an important distinction between walkability and place making that must be made clear, because walkability is often hi-jacked in order to anoint a new development as “place maker” because it merely recreates the scale of a quaint urban street.  If nobody lives in, or walks to, a place its place making is ephemeral, and akin to Disney World’s Frontierland, or a circus big top.  Ephemeral place making is weak and fragile and, therefore, not a good foundation for communities. The present plan for Jupiter Inlet Village offers only ephemeral place making, but it doesn’t need to.

Another metric for place making is the place / non-place analysis. The foundation of this analysis is the universally accepted notion that the most walkable places have a high density of actual places and / or walkable destinations.  A typical urban neighborhood is 80% places and 20% non-places – non-places being things that are not intended for humans to occupy outside of a vehicle.  Sidewalks are places, but a lane on a vehicle-only street or a parking lot is not a place.  A park or a plaza intended for human activity, as signified by amenities humans will use, is a place, but green space or paved space that is not planned for human activity is a non-place.  The Love Street proposal that professes to be about “real place making” consists of 60% non-places, and 40% places.  This should not be an acceptable design for a village that seeks to have a strong sense of place.

Wasteful land use in the form of a high percentage of non-places is the critical flaw with all drive-to places that claim to be urban or have high quality place making at their core. They simply do not, and they perpetuate the car-centric development pattern that exacerbates quality-of-life negatives in South Florida – traffic, loss of identity, and the replacement of real places with faux places.

For Love Street / Jupiter Inlet Village to become the real place in claims it will be, it should do the following:

  1. Embrace the residential patterns that are still in the area, and were once far more prominent, and include residential units of a similar urban village quality.
  2. All parking should be metered, and of the on-street variety, and the parking lot should be replaced with a public green.
  3. Retail, commercial, and office space should be geared toward neighborhood uses, with the goal of replacing vehicle trips with bicycle or pedestrian trips to a very high degree.
  4. The lighthouse promenade must actually align with the lighthouse, and, thereby, solidify a framed street scape view of this landmark in perpetuity for all to share in. The promenade is presently a few degrees off, and focuses on a point well east of the lighthouse.

Development and redevelopment projects are not inherently bad things, in fact, many developments create great pedestrian and transit oriented places that foster living, working and playing within a tight-knit community, However, developments that pretended to be great place makers, and really are not, represent a continuation of the very harmful growth patterns of the last half-century in disguise.

Jupiter Inlet Village can be a great place, and an asset to the community, but it will not get there by pretending to be something that it is not.

Timothy Hullihan is and architect and a board member of Sustainable Palm Beach County

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The Fight Against Minto is Not Over

By Timothy Hullihan

My wife and I spent 3 hours Saturday night at a dinner hosted by ALERTS of PBC.  They are a well-organized group of residents from The Acreage, Loxahatchee, and Loxahatchee Groves that have been fighting the Minto West project for several years, and vow to continue the fight even though most people outside of these western communities believe the developer has already won.  We learned from warm, energetic, and wisdom-filled conversation that this group of citizens is fighting for the very same thing that the opponents of Love Street, Suni Sands, Avenir, and GL Homes are fighting for.  They are fighting for a future that looks much like the past.  They are fighting for the right to keep the places they have called home for decades from becoming places they no longer recognize, no longer feel comfortable in, and can no longer afford.

Many were surprised that we drove west from North Palm Beach to attend the dinner, but several also recognized the connection. Like the funky rental cottages on Love Street in Jupiter, and the rural lifestyle of Loxahatchee; North Palm Beach is among a dwindling number of places in Palm Beach County that have not been forced above the “Haimish Line,” a phrase coined by David Brooks a few years ago.  These are places where neighbors still know each other in a small town, Mayberry sort of way, and being a second or third generation resident is not uncommon.  These are places that were created incrementally and maintained for decades by the will of their people, and not created overnight through centralized decision-making and government overreach.

Although we arrived as strangers, we left with many new friends and, hopefully partners. We live 20-miles apart, but we formed an intellectual bond that is increasingly rare.  Every person we spoke to believes our elected officials are too often planning for, and steering public policy in favor of, the hypothetical residents of the future rather than the people who live here now.  Like us, they understand that planning for, and encouraging growth that relies on finite resources such as water, farmland, open space, and clean air is dangerously short-sighted unless the carrying capacity of those finite resources is understood.  Each understands that the declining portions of our county to the east are directly related to the shiny new developments recently approved in the west.  Western expansion doesn’t just accommodate growth, it also replaces and makes less desirable places further east that were once shiny and new.  All of us understand that the cost of building the roads to connect sprawling growth, and the schools, libraries and fire stations to serve it, has an enormously high long-term cost to tax payers that is rarely measured, discussed, or considered until it is too late.  None we spoke to is in favor of the 1-cent sales tax increase for this very reason.

Charles Marohn, founder of Strong Towns, recently said that “smart growth” typically isn’t smart at all because it is large scale managed growth that takes decision making away from the people that live there.  It is short-sighted like “payday loans, and eating one’s self into obesity.”  Incremental growth, that created The Acreage, Loxahatchee, Loxahatchee Groves, and the old sections of the Town of Jupiter, is what creates great places to live.  We need to put the control of the growth of these areas back into the hands of its residents before all the simple, quiet, and laid back places to live in Palm Beach County are traded for short-term profits, and the myth of tax revenue boons that never come true.

Timothy Hullihan is an architect and a board member of Sustainable Palm Beach County.

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Estelle Jeanne Follette Oldfather Hullihan

I have received several requests for copies of the eulogy I gave at my mother’s funeral, recently.  With tearful eyes, and hard to read notes, what I said exactly is not certain.  The following is what was intended by the notes I can now read more clearly, and I believe I said approximately this:

Our mother, Jeanne, completed the circle of her Catholic life in the very place it began 90-years ago. Mom was born in West Palm Beach, and was baptized in this very building, St. Ann Catholic Church, a beautiful historic place that is now 105-years old.  She made her first communion here.  She was confirmed here, and on April 29, 2016, we celebrate her Mass of Christian Burial here – the same place her children and grandchildren received many of the holy sacraments.

Mom would have been very proud of this, but she was not a proud person. She wore pride as a subtle accessory, and never as a full suite of clothes.  So, she would have been a little embarrassed over all the fuss.  She was very aware of her smallness in relation to the greater good.  Her accolades and accomplishments were not ends into themselves, but opportunities to connect with others, make new friends, and gather people into her loving heart.

She was proud to be a Kappa Alpha Theta and a member of the first graduating class of FSU, but the life-long friendships these memberships granted her were far more meaningful. She was proud to be a West Palm Beach native, and a survivor of the 1928 Hurricane, but raising her children in a place in which she was already deeply rooted was far more important.  She was proud to be 30-year veteran of Cardinal Newman High School, but the impact she had on 1,000s of young-adults was far more rewarding.

The next thing I want to say about Mom may seem a little irreverent, but the day she died was very fitting. Mom and Dad’s home in North Palm Beach, for close to 20-years, had sold a few weeks earlier and the new family was moving in that morning.  As Carrie and I, Matthew and Ethan drove past several times that day, the joy and excitement of a young family of 7 starting life in Mom and Dad’s former home was on display.  Young children were playing in the front yard.  Boxes were being carried in by smiling parents.  Mom would have loved the symbolism.

It was fitting also because April 17th was the day before Federal Income Taxes were due.  Tax season lasted for months in our home growing up.  Shortly after clearing the dining room table after Christmas Dinner, it would begin a slow transformation.  Receipts, and forms, and scraps of paper of every shape and size would be stacked and sorted under impromptu paper weights.  Mom’s goal was to get a head-start on “the taxes” during Christmas Break, but we all knew she would be running to the Summit Post Office at 11:45 PM on April 15th.  Each year she would amassed an impressive case file that proved our eligibility for every deduction and exemption possible, and probably a few more that were a little grey.

Our mom was not a math person. She could do math in her head better than most people, but she detested its finality; its black-and-white nature.  Mom much preferred to operate in the pauses and spaces in life.  She didn’t care for Wagner’s music because it “never takes a break.”  She preferred the music of Mozart for its pauses that let you just feel, and allow the musical setting to wash over you and become more personal.   She was most comfortable in life’s grey areas where multi-answers are possible, and discovery and mystery walk together.  I think her annual assault on the U.S. Tax Code was her way of saying, I can do math, and do it very well if needed, but it should not be this important in life.

Mom was more Loren Eiseley than Albert Einstein because she valued universal truths like love, morality, and beauty over scientific, or mathematical truths. She loved explaining that love and morality can be very powerful forces of unity across humanity, if we allow them, but they operate outside the Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity because they only exist in time and not in space.  A beautiful piece of music will set a mode that all people feel and understand, but it does so through a non-physical, non-spatial construct.  Like her powerful Catholic faith, she cherished universal truths as the proper foundation for a life dedicated to the common good.

Mom loved words. She had an enormous vocabulary and she loved being asked to spell a word.  She would deliver the spelling far too quickly to comprehend with a knowing smile, and then repeat it slowly.  She loved words because, used well, they are among the most important binding fibers of a culture or community.  A child learns language first as a naming skill – “ball,” “dog,” “Mommy.”  Throughout our life time, our use of language grows to be more and more expressive of beauty, love, morality, and hardship.  Those that excel at the use of language take it to an art form that Mom cherished.  She loved poetry and prose from past and present for its ability to express with great beauty the joys and sadness all humanity has in common.

“Life’s not about you!” Is the one phrase I remembering hearing most as a self-absorbed teenager.  They were just words to me then, but now I realize they were part of a life-long spiritual journey for our Mother.  Her brilliant mind lead her deeper into faith, and not away from it.  I used to think that Mom’s love for animals was the reason statues of St. Francis of Assisi outnumbered all others in our home, but he was more than that to her.  Choosing to love over being loved, understanding over being understood; consoling over being consoled; giving instead of receiving; pardoning instead of being pardoned; and valuing the comfort of others over her own is how she chose to live her life.

Some of Mom’s most endearing qualities were clear manifestations of putting others first. She loved all life.  Every animal, plant, and person was a beautiful creation, and worthy of her love and respect.  Consequently, our home in Golfview was a virtual zoo, and it was not uncommon for Mom to rescue plants and animals from an uncertain future – sometimes at the most inconvenient of times, or at great risk to her personal safety.

Mom, was, of course, human, and she had delightful human qualities. She loved to laugh, and enjoyed creating laughter.  She had a beautiful and genuine smile.  She loved to socialize, and to gather with family and friends during any holiday, or, frankly, at any time at all.

In closing I want to embarrass my youngest son, Matthew, a little bit. He said to me the day after Mom’s passing that he had been thinking of her a lot, but he’d been thinking about all the things she missed while she was sick the last several years.  But now, he said, “She won’t be missing anything anymore.  She will be with us always.”  Each of our boys has said amazingly insightful things to Carrie and me over these last couple of weeks, and it makes us very proud to see and hear that Mom influenced who they have become.

All humanity has an enormous capacity to love, and it is very special to have had someone in our lives who was an enduring example of how joyous a life can be when it seeks to love, console, give, and provide comfort; instead of wishing those things upon one’s self.

Thank you, Mom! We all love you very much!

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Car-Centric Expansion of Urban Areas is not the Answer

I read with great interest Robert Reiland’s March 2, 2016 Palm Beach Post Point of View Piece: Forget the Ag Reserve: A Growing County Must Head West (linked here).  I agree with Mr. Rieland that a coastal location like Palm Beach County is a 180-degree place and, therefore, has half the available land to expand onto of an inland location.  I understand his frustration with our county’s rapid growth and the resulting perception that an Ag Reserve seems pointless in the long-term.  It was also compelling to learn from Mr. Reiland that the Bible gave us “dominion over animal life,” and, therefore, man’s perpetual march into the shrinking remnants of the natural world has a divine provenance.

If it were possible to add to Mr. Reiland’s thoughtful prose, I would offer a couple of concepts that come from established schools of thought.  The Congress for New Urbanism was chartered in 1993, and for 23-years it has been advocating for planning practices that use available land 3 to 4 times more slowly than the sprawling land development practices that still dominate South Florida’s zoning, traffic and land use guidelines.  Had we been using smart growth policies since Mr. Reiland moved to Donald Ross Road and I-95 twenty years ago, we would have accommodated the same population growth during that time, but half of the land area developed since then would still be open space.

While growing to the west may seem our only choice, we actually have 2 other choices.  First, we can accommodate the same population growth through smarter growth policies.  Second, we can adopt land development policies that encourage infill development in existing urban areas and reduce the pressure on rural open space and agricultural areas.

Lastly, I looked up several theologians’ interpretation of the use of the word “dominion” in Genesis 1:26, among them those of Saint Thomas Aquinas.  Essentially, dominion was granted during man’s initial innocence, or before the original sin, and, therefore, it was granted in the sense of ideal governance that benefits the governed and the common good.  It was granted in light of man’s ability to reason and practice good stewardship of the planet.  Dominion in the sense that we are entitled to consume land and animals until there is nothing left was not God’s intention.  The smart growth principles of New Urbanism are an example of the kind of good stewardship (dominion through man’s ability to reason) that must be part of the solution to the growth management crisis that we face in Palm Beach County.

I encourage everyone to become familiar with how New Urbanism has helped create thousands of sustainable communities around the country and the world, but, unfortunately, very few here.  We have to become smarter before we look like Dade and Broward County.

Timothy Hullihan is an architect in North Palm Beach and a board member of Sustainable Palm Beach County.




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What has happened to us since 9/11? Our division defines us.

The following article was written for the Palm Beach Post, and published there on September 24, 2010.  At that time, now 5-years ago, irrational fears over the “Ground Zero Mosque” were spiraling our country into an abyss of hatred.

Today, we are following a similar path, but this time 2-million Syrian children that have fled their war torn homeland are the unseen victims of our comfortable perspective from one of the safest, wealthiest, and most self-centered places on earth.

Five years later, just substitute ISIS for Al-Qaeda, and Syrian Refugees for Ground Zero Mosque, and the fear the terrorists wanted us to feel, and made us weak, is still with us.  They are winning the war on terrorism until we stop acting out of irrational fear.

What has happened to us since 9/11?  Our division defines us.

By Timothy Hullihan:

On September 11, of this year, someone sent me an image of the twin towers, smoldering like enormous chimneys just minutes before their collapse. In the foreground was the Statue of Liberty, our nation’s most enduring symbol of freedom. This image tells us so much about who we were before 9/11 and who we have become.

We were once a nation that understood the importance of being the world’s example of freedom. We once understood that freedom must not have limits, or we will risk being held captive by an increasingly narrow definition of liberty. The statue, originally called Liberty Enlightening the World and given to us by France in 1886, commemorated our successful embrace of independence and freedom, a political experiment unlike any the world had seen.

Since her commemoration, we have fought and continue to fight unpopular wars to free millions. We have accepted millions of legal immigrants and expanded our civil rights to ensure freedom to all without limitation.

Yet we have become increasingly less likely as a nation to define, embrace and show respect for freedom in the same way as our neighbor. We have become so afraid of those who seek to destroy our country and the freedom we symbolize that we have become a poor role model to those who seek the very freedom we take for granted. Individually, we are so desperate for revenge against those who have attacked, and would attack us, that we sometimes redefine freedom to serve our point of view. We are becoming a nation divided by extreme points of view, paralyzed by vocal extremes that force politicians to join an extremist camp or walk the minefield in between. Consequently, we no longer have much that we agree on as a nation.

Is this not what the 9/11 terrorists hoped to achieve? They sought to bring fear and chaos, and change the way we lived. Are we not allowing them to feel successful each time one of us speaks out in anger or spreads a fear-based accusation or rumor?

Who will lead us in the way that Ulysses Grant and Rutherford B. Hayes reconstructed and reunited our bitterly divided nation after the Civil War? Who will reconnect us with civil discourse and respectful debate? Who will reunite us under the blanket of righteousness and protect us from the chill of self-serving ideology?

Our image around the world dropped to its lowest point in history during the years that followed 9/11. We are trying to improve an image tarnished by years of governance with dishonesty, misinformation, ignorance and disrespect, but as a people we have accepted misleading statements and ignorance-based opinions as normal and we have lost our way.

Before 9/11, we would have found debate over the location of an Islamic cultural center too extreme. Today, this topic has been on the short list of important news for weeks. What kind of example are we setting? Yes, Muslim extremists attacked our country and killed nearly 3,000 innocent people, but they are not representative of Muslims as a whole. The Ku Klux Klan was responsible for attacks against blacks and white sympathizers throughout the South. The Klan was made up of extremists, but it was not representative of all Americans.

Who will lead us out of the paralysis of extremism? It will not be a single person. One by one, we will demand more of ourselves. We will seek to return to a civilized existence. We will expect more from the people expressing opinions, and we will seek to become knowledgeable before we spread hearsay. We will show respect for the freedom our Constitution grants us by conducting ourselves in a manner that is consistent with our role as the world’s example of a free society. We will choose to look like a culture that has matured and grown stronger, and will cease to follow the regressive path of anger and hatred.

We can become more paralyzed, more angry, more violent and more extreme, and less likely to influence the future of the world. Or we can overcome the fear, hatred and chaos that Al-Qaeda had hoped would consume us, and return to being the intelligent voice that enlightened the world with our successful and lasting foray into independence and liberty.

Timothy Hullihan is an architect and freelance writer living in North Palm Beach.

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